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November 15, 2023

ERC-4337 Smart Accounts: Uncovering the Adoption Challenge


The blockchain world is no stranger to innovation, and Ethereum's ERC-4337 smart accounts were heralded as the next big thing. However, recent figures reveal a sobering reality - the adoption of ERC-4337 has fallen far short of expectations.

The Birth of ERC-4337

The story began with a surprise announcement on March 1 at WalletCon in Denver. Ethereum introduced the ERC-4337 standard, promising "smart accounts" that would simplify user experiences on Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)-compatible blockchains. These smart accounts would allow users to bypass the use of seed phrases and signing for specific transactions, potentially enhancing the overall user experience.

Sobering Figures

Fast forward to today, and Ethereum account abstraction advocate John Rising has shared some eye-opening data. These figures paint a picture of ERC-4337 adoption that is far from ideal. Rising's data points reveal a decline in users, low transaction activity, and operational challenges faced by core infrastructure providers.

Monthly Account Retention Woes

One particularly concerning statistic is the monthly account retention rate. According to Rising, this figure has been nothing short of disappointing, with only 6.89% of initial smart accounts remaining active for more than six months. This raises questions about the long-term sustainability and appeal of ERC-4337.

Bundlers in Trouble

Bundlers, the essential components of ERC-4337 that enable smart accounts to function on EVM-compatible chains, have faced profitability issues. Despite their importance, many bundlers have struggled to turn a profit, with some projects unintentionally overpaying in gas fees.

Limited User Activity

Another aspect worth noting is the limited transaction activity of the average smart account. On average, these accounts have been involved in just five user operations, including transaction executions and various activities.

Differing Perspectives

In response to these figures, opinions within the cryptocurrency community vary. While some, like Coinbase protocols lead Jesse Pollak, believe that ERC-4337 adoption is simply in its early stages and will pick up momentum gradually, others see these statistics as cause for concern.

A Glimpse of Hope

Data from Dune Analytics shows that August saw the highest number of active account abstraction wallets, with over 420,000 active smart accounts across seven blockchains. However, subsequent months have seen a decline, with 143,000 monthly active accounts recorded in October.

The Path Forward

As the cryptocurrency community navigates the complexities of ERC-4337 adoption, the road ahead remains uncertain. Will ERC-4337 smart accounts experience a resurgence, or are these challenges insurmountable?


In conclusion, the adoption of ERC-4337 smart accounts presents a mixed landscape, with both challenges and opportunities. As the Ethereum community grapples with this new technology, the journey toward widespread adoption may indeed follow the pattern of "slowly, then suddenly."


What are ERC-4337 smart accounts?

ERC-4337 smart accounts are a type of blockchain technology that aims to simplify user experiences on Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)-compatible blockchainsby allowing users to bypass certain authentication processes.

Why did monthly account retention decline?

Monthly account retention declined due to various factors, including challenges faced by bundlers and limited user engagement.

What challenges have bundlers faced?

Bundlers, the core infrastructure components of ERC-4337, have struggled with profitability, and some projects have inadvertently paid excessive gas fees.

Is there hope for the future of ERC-4337 adoption?

While the adoption of ERC-4337 has faced challenges, some believe that it is still in its early stages and may gain momentum over time.

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